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Phantosmia: The Smells in Your Head

People with phantosmia have an illusory sense of smell; they smell things that simply are not there. Read more about this uncommon smell disorder.

People with phantosmia hallucinate smells.
People with phantosmia hallucinate smells.

Olfactory Hallucinations

Earlier, I wrote about anosmia or losing your sense of smell. For as long as I can remember, I have rarely been able to smell fragrances and odors.

Some people are sensitive to certain smells, and their sensitivity makes them physically ill. Others have an illusory sense of smell; they smell things that simply are not there.

The medical term for this condition is phantosmia, from the Greek words "phantasm" (illusion) and "osme" (smell). People with phantosmia smell things that are not derived from physical stimuli. In other words, the odors are "in the mind."

Phantosmia is a real problem, though the smells are not real. Olfactory hallucinations can vary from person to person. Sometimes phantom smells are pleasant scents; more often, they are foul smelling odors that are hard to live with.

Those with this unusual condition say the smells can occur in one nostril or both. Unfortunately, other (real) fragrances usually cannot mask the phantom odors.

What Causes Phantosmia?

According to Dr. Jerry Swanson, a Mayo Clinic neurologist, phantosmia sometimes occurs after a head injury, brain tumor or stroke. Epileptic seizures may also cause the condition.

Phantosmia is often related to upper respiratory infections, sinusitis and migraine headaches. In some cases, it is linked to neurological disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

While phantosmia may indicate an underlying medical condition, the problem is not always related to serious illness. It generally arises from some loss in the ability to smell.

Dr. Donald Leopold practices otolaryngology in Omaha, Nebraska. He says the brain has "a propensity to make smell." When olfactory ability is impaired, the brain may overcompensate by creating odors that once existed and were suppressed.

Phantosmia Treatments

Fortunately, some cases of phantosmia can be treated. If you experience any type of smell distortion, see your doctor or an ear, nose and throat specialist.

Nasal saline drops, antidepressants, sedatives and anti-seizure medicines are common treatments for smell disorders.

For severe olfactory hallucinations, especially foul smells that are hard to live with, surgery may be an option. A surgeon can severe certain olfactory connections to resolve the problem.

Interestingly, phantosmia sometimes disappears on its own. Most people just learn to live with the disorder. Have you?

Reference Sources

 Last updated on February 22, 2014

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Comments 32 comments

Devin 2 years ago

I have had phantosmiathis my entire life and has been getting preogressively worse over the past 4 years. I do not have pleasant smells, though. I am one of the ones who hallucinate basically the worst odor in the entire world. It is literally the worst thing ever. I cant eat when it happens. It happens almost every day. Sometimes if I put my head upside down and hold my breath, it goes away. I have talked to Dr. Leopold and read everything I can about this disease, but nothing really helps beacuse this disease is so under-researched. Does anyone know why rare diseases are so under researched in America? After all, they are not so rare anymore, because if you put them all together, about ten percent of Americans have a rare disease and that is a lot of people! I hate not being able to smell normally. Phantosmia sucks, that's all I have to say! I wish the government would fund more research for this disease and others :/

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Annette R. Smith 2 years ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Devin. Thank you for reading this article and telling us about your experiences with phantosmia. My problem is anosmia, so I rarely smell anything at all. How frustrating it must be to continually sense bad smells, even through hallucinations. I pray that you will eventually find a treatment for this condition that improves your quality of life.

Steve 2 years ago

I also have the same condition. For the last few weeks I have been smelling exhaust fumes and it gets to the point of making me very sick to my stomach. It is getting to a stage where I am getting very worried. This has been happening for about the last year on and off. I have also had brain surgery in the past and suffer from C.O.P.D.

I just thought I would share to let others know this is real and we are not going crazy like it may seem.

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Annette R. Smith 2 years ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Steve. Thank you for sharing your comments with us. This frustrating condition is indeed real, and those who share your condition can take comfort in the fact that they are not alone. You have my prayers for recovery from phantosmia and the smells that are making you sick.

Joan 2 years ago

I began experiencing phantosmia about 18 months ago. At first I could smell very strong cigarette smoke constantly but no one in our house smokes. I did not know why it was happening and did not tell anyone( I still have not told anyone I know) that this was happening for fear of being thought insane. I did an internet search a few months after the onset of my phantosmia and discovered I was not alone. The cigarette smell is intensely unpleasant but is not constant anymore. After about 6 months I could go days without smelling smoke. These days I mostly experience it when I am about to get a cold or become unwell. I now know if I smell smoke that is not there I am under the weather. I don't know if it a good thing or a bad thing but I use it as an early warning system for my health - if I smell smoke I try to get more sleep and look after my health better. At least if I cannot get rid of it I can put it to work. I am normally in good health and have never smoked, the only thing that comes to mind that occurred in the same year as my phantosmia began was that I underwent a dental implant for an upper lateral incisor with a minor bone graft. Maybe this had an effect on my olfactory system, or maybe I am just reaching. I am fortunate in that my life is not blighted by it but it is not pleasant and I no longer trust my sense of smell.

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Annette R. Smith 2 years ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hi, Joan. I love your comment, "At least if I cannot get rid of it I can put it to work." What a great attitude! I'm sorry that you have to cope with this unusual phenomenon, but I'm glad you've found a way to live with it so far. Thank you for reading my article and sharing your insights with us.

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pinkhawk 2 years ago from Pearl of the Orient

Never heard this before... but based from the information here, I realized that it's really possible to vomit because you imagine or remember unpleasant things... This is interesting, another word for my vocabulary..Thank you for sharing!

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Annette R. Smith 2 years ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Phantosmia really is quite the phenomenon, and an interesting topic to research too. I'm more familiar (and personally acquainted) with anosmia, which is the absence of smell sensation. Thank you, pinkhawk, for reading and commenting.

Colin 21 months ago

I've suffered with this since May. I smelled cigarette smoke to the point of bringing tears to my eyes, but I don't smoke and neither does anyone else around me. I had antibiotics for sinusitis that reduced it, but didn't remove it. I recently had an MRI scan that ruled out a sinus blockage and a brain tumor. I've been discharged from ENT and the trail is going cold. They're now thinking acid reflux might have something to do with it, but I can't find anything to explain that connection. It worries me that the specialists aren't really aware of this problem and may never find the cause, or even be interested in finding it :(

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Annette R. Smith 21 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hi, Colin. Thank you for telling us about your experiences with this smell disorder. Like you, I'm confused about the acid reflux / phantosmia connection. I'm sorry that you and so many others suffer those unpleasant phantom smells. It would be nice if doctors could find some answers soon. Again, many thanks for stopping by.

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tessvowels 20 months ago from Missouri

On occasion, I smell roses... different locations, no roses in the area! I like this one. But there's another I have, smells like something electrical is burning... this one is rather bothersome! I notice it more when I don't smell it!!

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Annette R. Smith 20 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Tess. How wonderful to smell roses, even when they are not around! I wish I could smell all the lovely things in life. However, I'm blessed that I can't smell the unpleasant things, either! Thanks so much for stopping by and sharing a word here.

Yramb 18 months ago

How I would love to smell roses. I just got my diagnoses today. The smells started in September of 2011, started as some smelly rotten grass from deep down in the earth, then went to smoke. I was going through the house looking for smoke, asking my sons if they smelled smoke, they,said mom it's in your head. Little did I know that it was in my head. My neurologist was treating me for migraines, then after I had my neck surgery, the migraines stopped, then my neurologist decides to send me to ENT specialist for chronic sinusitis. My MRI showed nothing wrong with my brain and I had never even heard of anything called phantosmia. The smell gets so bad at times, it come and go as it please, it's worse at night, I lay in my bed, stuff tissue up my nose, bury my head in my pillow and just want to cry. It depresses me more then anything else in the world. I had a free day until right now, it just popped out., so guys, you are not alone. I know what you are going through, and we are not crazy.

Annette R. Smith profile image

Annette R. Smith 18 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Yramb. Thank you not only for reading my hub, but also for sharing about your experiences with phantosmia. I suffer from anosmia or a lack of smell sensation, so I can only imagine the misery that your smell disorder causes for you. I hope you can find something to help you cope with the condition. You're in my thoughts and prayers tonight.

debs 17 months ago

hello i have recently started experiencing smells out of the blue over the last few weeks.I have had beer,poo,rotten flesh.perm solution and other strange chemical smells. I havnt been ill or depressed and just happend to come across your video. Im quite spiritual and so i associated it with this but now feel a bit freaked after finding out its medical. What should i do?

Annette R. Smith profile image

Annette R. Smith 17 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Debs. Thank you for your comments and your question. I'm sorry to hear that you're experiencing phantom smells. As a writer, I cannot give you medical advice, but your doctor may be able to provide some answers.

My problem is anosmia, or the inability to smell, so I can only imagine your suffering. I hope you take comfort in the fact that you're not alone; from the comments above, it seems that other people also experience what you're going through. I hope you discover the cause of your problem and also a way to treat it. You're in my prayers today.

Yramb 17 months ago

Hi Annette, Thanks for your comments. I feel much better now that I've been to my ENT specialist and found out that I don't have cancer or a brain tumor. I feel very Blessed in that area because some people do. The specialist suggests trying saline solution, antidepressants and a seizure medication. He said sometimes the smells go away on its own, and sometimes they never go away, we just have to find a way to live with it. For me, Prayer is my answer. I pray that others can find a way to cope with it as well.

debs 17 months ago

thank you for taking some time to reply.I hope you can get your own problems sorted soon too hun.

Annette R. Smith profile image

Annette R. Smith 17 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hello, Yramb. Thank you for giving us an update on your condition. I'm so glad that the visit to your ENT specialist has given you some peace of mind. You continue to have my prayers.

Annette R. Smith profile image

Annette R. Smith 17 months ago from San Antonio, Texas Hub Author

Hi, Debs. It's good to hear from you again. May we both find a way to cope with our unusual smell disorders!

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